Timor-Leste - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Since independence in 1999, Timor-Leste has faced great challenges in rebuilding its infrastructure, strengthening the civil administration, and generating jobs for young people entering the work force. The development of offshore oil and gas resources has greatly supplemented government revenues. This technology-intensive industry, however, has done little to create jobs in part because there are no production facilities in Timor-Leste. Gas is currently piped to Australia for processing, but Timor-Leste has expressed interest in developing a domestic processing capability. In...

Continue reading View Factbook for Timor-Leste

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Investment 2017 479,579,800 656,900,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2017 508,977,000 683,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 655,800,000 565,500,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 634,600,000 571,100,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2014 4,175 5,641 Mil. USD Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Feb 2018 144.42 144.01 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 70,863 69,016 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 278,516 272,590 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2013 149.3 148.56 Mil. USD Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Balance of Goods 2018 Q1 -143,688,500 -206,135,992 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 16,693,758 20,045,100 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2017 681,180,993 558,616,400 USD Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 932,600,000 904,400,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 58,200,000 50,500,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 57,600,000 50,500,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 978,100,000 904,410,000 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Jul 2018 13.49 13.24 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 1,296,311 1,268,671 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 35.05 35.5 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 5.53 5.64 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -50,004 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
The Portuguese began to trade with the island of Timor in the early 16th century and colonized it in mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty in which Portugal ceded the western portion of the island. Imperial Japan occupied Portuguese Timor from 1942 to 1945, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese defeat in World War II. East Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of Timor Timur (East Timor). An unsuccessful campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 people died. In an August 1999 UN-supervised popular referendum, an overwhelming majority of the people of Timor-Leste voted for independence from Indonesia. However, in the next three weeks, anti-independence Timorese militias - organized and supported by the Indonesian military - commenced a large-scale, scorched-earth campaign of retribution. The militias killed approximately 1,400 Timorese and forced 300,000 people into western Timor as refugees. Most of the country's infrastructure, including homes, irrigation systems, water supply systems, and schools, and nearly all of the country's electrical grid were destroyed. On 20 September 1999, Australian-led peacekeeping troops deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end. On 20 May 2002, Timor-Leste was internationally recognized as an independent state.
In 2006, internal tensions threatened the new nation's security when a military strike led to violence and a breakdown of law and order. At Dili's request, an Australian-led International Stabilization Force (ISF) deployed to Timor-Leste, and the UN Security Council established the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), which included an authorized police presence of over 1,600 personnel. The ISF and UNMIT restored stability, allowing for presidential and parliamentary elections in 2007 in a largely peaceful atmosphere. In February 2008, a rebel group staged an unsuccessful attack against the president and prime minister. The ringleader was killed in the attack, and most of the rebels surrendered in April 2008. Since the attack, the government has enjoyed one of its longest periods of post-independence stability, including successful 2012 elections for both the parliament and president and a successful transition of power in February 2015. In late 2012, the UN Security Council ended its peacekeeping mission in Timor-Leste and both the ISF and UNMIT departed the country.

Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - Timor-Leste includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
Geographic coordinates:
8 50 S, 125 55 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
Area:
total: 14,874 sq km
land: 14,874 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 160
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total: 253 km
border countries (1): Indonesia 253 km
Coastline:
706 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
Terrain:
mountainous
Elevation:
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m
highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m
Natural resources:
gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble
Land use:
agricultural land: 25.1%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 4.9%; permanent pasture 10.1%
forest: 49.1%
other: 25.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
350 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
most of the population concentrated in the western third of the country, particularly around Dili
Natural hazards:
floods and landslides are common; earthquakes; tsunamis; tropical cyclones
Environment - current issues:
widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Timor comes from the Malay word for "east"; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands

People & Society

Population:
1,291,358 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Nationality:
noun: Timorese
adjective: Timorese
Ethnic groups:
Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) (includes Tetun, Mambai, Tokodede, Galoli, Kemak, Baikeno), Melanesian-Papuan (includes Bunak, Fataluku, Bakasai), small Chinese minority
Languages:
Tetun Prasa 30.6%, Mambai 16.6%, Makasai 10.5%, Tetun Terik 6.1%, Baikenu 5.9%, Kemak 5.8%, Bunak 5.5%, Tokodede 4%, Fataluku 3.5%, Waima'a 1.8%, Galoli 1.4%, Naueti 1.4%, Idate 1.2%, Midiki 1.2%, other 4.5%
note: data represent population by mother tongue; Tetun and Portuguese are official languages; Indonesian and English are working languages; there are about 32 indigenous languages
Religions:
Roman Catholic 97.6%, Protestant/Evangelical 2%, Muslim 0.2%, other 0.2% (2015 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.91% (male 271,623/female 256,733)
15-24 years: 20.32% (male 133,254/female 129,166)
25-54 years: 29.95% (male 185,911/female 200,903)
55-64 years: 4.94% (male 32,168/female 31,680)
65 years and over: 3.87% (male 23,924/female 25,996) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 90.3
youth dependency ratio: 83.7
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
potential support ratio: 15.2 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.9 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Population growth rate:
2.36% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Birth rate:
33.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Death rate:
5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Net migration rate:
-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Population distribution:
most of the population concentrated in the western third of the country, particularly around Dili
Urbanization:
urban population: 34% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
DILI (capital) 228,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
22.1 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009/10 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
215 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Infant mortality rate:
total: 35.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.4 years
male: 66.8 years
female: 70.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Total fertility rate:
4.79 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
22.3% (2009/10)
Health expenditures:
1.5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 192
Physicians density:
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density:
5.9 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 95.2% of population
rural: 60.5% of population
total: 71.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.8% of population
rural: 39.5% of population
total: 28.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 69% of population
rural: 26.8% of population
total: 40.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 31% of population
rural: 73.2% of population
total: 59.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
3.8% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 190
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
37.7% (2013)
country comparison to the world: 1
Education expenditures:
7.5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 7
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.5%
male: 71.5%
female: 63.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 14 years
female: 13 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 11.1%
male: 11.1%
female: 20% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
conventional short form: Timor-Leste
note: pronounced TEE-mor LESS-tay
local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
former: East Timor, Portuguese Timor
etymology: "timor" derives from the Indonesian and Malay word "timur" meaning "east"; "leste" is the Portuguese word for "east", so "Timor-Leste" literally means "Eastern-East"; the local [Tetum] name "Timor Lorosa'e" translates as "East Rising Sun"
Government type:
semi-presidential republic
Capital:
name: Dili
geographic coordinates: 8 35 S, 125 36 E
time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
13 administrative districts; Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro (Maliana), Cova-Lima (Suai), Dili, Ermera (Gleno), Lautem (Los Palos), Liquica, Manatuto, Manufahi (Same), Oecussi (Ambeno), Viqueque
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
20 May 2002 (from Indonesia); note - 28 November 1975 was the date independence was proclaimed from Portugal; 20 May 2002 was the date of international recognition of Timor-Leste's independence from Indonesia
National holiday:
Restoration of Independence Day, 20 May (2002); Proclamation of Independence Day, 28 November (1975)
Constitution:
history: drafted 2001, approved 22 March 2002, entered into force 20 May 2002
amendments: proposed by Parliament and parliamentary groups; consideration of amendments requires at least four-fifths majority approval by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by Parliament and promulgation by the president of the republic; passage of amendments to the republican form of government and the flag requires approval in a referendum (2018)
Legal system:
civil law system based on the Portuguese model; note - penal and civil law codes to replace the Indonesian codes were passed by Parliament and promulgated in 2009 and 2011, respectively
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Timor-Leste
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francisco GUTERRES (since 20 May 2017); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is the commander in chief of the military and is able to veto legislation, dissolve parliament, and call national elections
head of government: Prime Minister Mari ALKATIRI (since 15 September 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 March 2017 (next to be held in 2022); following parliamentary elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the prime minister
election results: Francisco GUTERRES elected president; percent of vote - Francisco GUTERRES (FRETILIN) 57.1%, Antonio DA CONCEICAO (PD) 32.5%, Jose Luis GUTERRES (Frenti-Mudanca) 2.6%, Jose NEVES (independent) 2.3%, Luis Alves TILMAN (independent) 2.2%, other 3.4%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Parliament (65 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: elections were held on 12 May 2018, (next to be held in July 2023)
election results: percent of vote by party - AMP - 49.6%, FRETILIN 34.2%, PD 8.1%, DDF - 5.5%; seats by party - AMP - 34, FRETILIN 23, PD 5, DDF 3
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president and NA judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic from among the other court judges to serve a 4-year term; other Supreme Court judges appointed - 1 by the Parliament and the others by the Supreme Council for the Judiciary, a body presided by the Supreme Court president and includes mostly presidential and parliamentary appointees; other Supreme Court judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Administrative, Tax, and Audit Court; district courts; magistrates' courts; military courts
note: the UN Justice System Programme, launched in 2003 in 4 phases through 2018, is helping strengthen the country's justice system; the Programme is aligned with the country's long-range Justice Sector Strategic Plan, which includes legal reform
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party or PD
Frenti-Mudanca [Jose Luis GUTERRES]
Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan or KHUNTO
National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction or CNRT [Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO]
People's Liberation Party or PLP [Taur Matan RUAK]
Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor-Leste or FRETILIN [Mari ALKATIRI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ACP, ADB, AOSIS, ARF, ASEAN (observer), CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Domingos Sarmento ALVES (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 4201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 504, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-3202
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3205
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen FITZPATRICK (since 19 January 2018)
embassy: Avenida de Portugal, Praia dos Coqueiros, Dili
mailing address: US Department of State, 8250 Dili Place, Washington, DC 20521-8250
telephone: (670) 332-4684
FAX: (670) 331-3206
Flag description:
red with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; a white star - pointing to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag - is in the center of the black triangle; yellow denotes the colonialism in Timor-Leste's past; black represents the obscurantism that needs to be overcome; red stands for the national liberation struggle; the white star symbolizes peace and serves as a guiding light
National symbol(s):
Mount Ramelau; national colors: red, yellow, black, white
National anthem:
name: "Patria" (Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Fransisco Borja DA COSTA/Afonso DE ARAUJO
note: adopted 2002; the song was first used as an anthem when Timor-Leste declared its independence from Portugal in 1975; the lyricist, Fransisco Borja DA COSTA, was killed in the Indonesian invasion just days after independence was declared

Economy

Economy - overview:
Since independence in 1999, Timor-Leste has faced great challenges in rebuilding its infrastructure, strengthening the civil administration, and generating jobs for young people entering the work force. The development of offshore oil and gas resources has greatly supplemented government revenues. This technology-intensive industry, however, has done little to create jobs in part because there are no production facilities in Timor-Leste. Gas is currently piped to Australia for processing, but Timor-Leste has expressed interest in developing a domestic processing capability.
In June 2005, the National Parliament unanimously approved the creation of the Timor-Leste Petroleum Fund to serve as a repository for all petroleum revenues and to preserve the value of Timor-Leste's petroleum wealth for future generations. The Fund held assets of $16 billion, as of mid-2016. Oil accounts for over 90% of government revenues, and the drop in the price of oil in 2014-16 has led to concerns about the long-term sustainability of government spending. Timor-Leste compensated for the decline in price by exporting more oil. The Ministry of Finance maintains that the Petroleum Fund is sufficient to sustain government operations for the foreseeable future.
Annual government budget expenditures increased markedly between 2009 and 2012 but dropped significantly through 2016. Historically, the government failed to spend as much as its budget allowed. The government has focused significant resources on basic infrastructure, including electricity and roads, but limited experience in procurement and infrastructure building has hampered these projects. The underlying economic policy challenge the country faces remains how best to use oil-and-gas wealth to lift the non-oil economy onto a higher growth path and to reduce poverty.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$6.211 billion (2017 est.)
$5.972 billion (2016 est.)
$5.688 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 172
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.716 billion (2017 est.)
note: non-oil GDP
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,000 (2017 est.)
$4,900 (2016 est.)
$4,800 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 171
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 19.7%
government consumption: 30.7%
investment in fixed capital: 21.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 79.6%
imports of goods and services: -51.2% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 9.4%
industry: 57.8%
services: 31.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, rice, corn, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla
Industries:
printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
Industrial production growth rate:
2% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Labor force:
286,700 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 64%
industry: 10%
services: 26% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.4% (2014 est.)
3.9% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Population below poverty line:
41.8% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 27% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
31.9 (2007 est.)
38 (2002 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Budget:
revenues: $300 million
expenditures: $2.2 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
11% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-70% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 221
Public debt:
0% of GDP (2016 est.)
0% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (2017 est.)
-1.3% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
14.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
14.22% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Stock of narrow money:
$559.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$464.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Stock of broad money:
$788.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$733.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Stock of domestic credit:
$-300 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$-200 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-153 million (2017 est.)
$-523 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Exports:
$20 million (2016 est.)
$18 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Exports - commodities:
oil, coffee, sandalwood, marble
note: potential for vanilla exports
Imports:
$558.6 million (2016 est.)
$652.9 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Imports - commodities:
food, gasoline, kerosene, machinery
Debt - external:
$311.5 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$687 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Exchange rates:
the US dollar is used

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 744,032
electrification - total population: 42%
electrification - urban areas: 78%
electrification - rural areas: 27% (2012)
Electricity - production:
0 kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 221
Electricity - consumption:
0 kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 220
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
NA kW (2015 est.)
Crude oil - production:
49,240 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Crude oil - exports:
74,230 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
3,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Refined petroleum products - imports:
3,055 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Natural gas - production:
7.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Natural gas - exports:
7.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
Natural gas - proved reserves:
200 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
500,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 2,720
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 1,492,124
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Telephone system:
general assessment: rudimentary service in urban and some rural areas, which is expanding with the entrance of new competitors
domestic: system suffered significant damage during the violence associated with independence; limited fixed-line services; mobile-cellular services have been expanding and are now available in urban and most rural areas
international: country code - 670; international service is available (2016)
Broadcast media:
7 TV stations (2 nationwide satellite coverage; 3 terrestrial coverage, mostly in Dili; 2 cable) and 21 radio stations (3 nationwide coverage) (2017)
Internet country code:
.tl
Internet users:
total: 318,373
percent of population: 25.2% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

Transportation

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
4W (2016)
Airports:
6 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 176
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports:
8 (2013)
Roadways:
total: 6,040 km
paved: 2,600 km
unpaved: 3,440 km (2005)
country comparison to the world: 149
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Dili

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
2.56% of GDP (2015)
2.12% of GDP (2014)
2.42% of GDP (2013)
2.58% of GDP (2012)
1.79% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 34
Military branches:
Timor-Leste Defense Force (Falintil-Forcas de Defesa de Timor-L'este, Falintil (F-FDTL)): Army, Navy (Armada) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-month service obligation; no conscription but, as of May 2013, introduction of conscription was under discussion (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
three stretches of land borders with Indonesia have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; maritime boundaries with Indonesia remain unresolved; in 2018, Australia and Timor-Leste signed a permanent maritime border treaty, scrapping a 2007 development zone and revenue sharing arrangement between the countries
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Timor-Leste is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Timorese women and girls from rural areas are lured to the capital with promises of legitimate jobs or education prospects and are then forced into prostitution or domestic servitude, and other women and girls may be sent to Indonesia for domestic servitude; Timorese family members force children into bonded domestic or agricultural labor to repay debts; foreign migrant women are vulnerable to sex trafficking in Timor-Leste, while men and boys from Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand are forced to work on fishing boats in Timorese waters under inhumane conditions
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Timor-Leste does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, legislation was drafted but not finalized or implemented that outlines procedures for screening potential trafficking victims; law enforcement made modest progress, including one conviction for sex trafficking, but efforts are hindered by prosecutors’ and judges’ lack of expertise in applying anti-trafficking laws effectively; the government rescued two child victims with support from an NGO but did not provide protective services (2015)
Illicit drugs:
NA

Economic Indicators for Timor-Leste including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Timor-Leste economy.