Algeria - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy, pursuing an explicit import substitution policy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 30% of GDP, 60% of budget revenues, and nearly 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world - including the 3rd-largest...

Continue reading View Factbook for Algeria

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 5,648,291,000,000 7,467,341,800,000 NCU Annual
Real Government Consumption 2016 1,004,858,893,800 991,963,370,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 3,291,554,470,700 3,157,296,640,500 NCU Annual
Real Private Consumption 2016 72,433,186,586 70,119,251,293 2010 USD Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 1,552,748 1,520,198 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods 2017 34,569,616,295 29,316,936,939 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2017 48,810,762,377 49,316,882,927 USD Annual
Current Account Balance 2017 -22,058,711,276 -26,204,046,336 USD Annual
Balance of Goods 2017 -14,241,146,081 -19,999,945,988 USD Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2016 954,116,993,200 884,260,420,000 NCU Annual
Real Net Exports 2016 -1,785,648,811,900 -1,940,240,410,000 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2016 2,739,765,805,100 2,824,500,830,000 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate Jun 2018 1.52 1.91 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Jun 2018 2.3 2.28 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Apr 2013 4 4 % Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Industrial Production 2018 Q1 107.21 115.78 2010=100, NSA Quarterly
Real Change in Inventories 2016 77,611,748,500 740,798,276,600 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2012 -143,268 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 legislative elections led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence from 1992-98, resulting in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000.
Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election that was boycotted by several candidates protesting alleged fraud, and won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009, and 2014. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasing subsidies to the populace. Since 2014, Algeria’s reliance on hydrocarbon revenues to fund the government and finance the large subsidies for the population has fallen under stress because of declining oil prices.

Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates:
28 00 N, 3 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 2,381,741 sq km
land: 2,381,741 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 11
Area - comparative:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 6,734 km
border countries (7): Libya 989 km, Mali 1,359 km, Mauritania 460 km, Morocco 1,900 km, Niger 951 km, Tunisia 1,034 km, Western Sahara 41 km
Coastline:
998 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
Climate:
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain:
mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation:
mean elevation: 800 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 2,908 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use:
agricultural land: 17.4%
arable land 18.02%; permanent crops 2.34%; permanent pasture 79.63%
forest: 0.82%
other: 81.8% (2014 est.)
Irrigated land:
13,600 sq km (2014)
Population - distribution:
the vast majority of the populace is found in the extreme northern part of the country along the Mediterranean Coast
Natural hazards:
mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season; droughts
Environment - current issues:
air pollution in major cities; soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
largest country in Africa

People & Society

Population:
40,969,443 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Nationality:
noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Ethnic groups:
Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has officially recognized Berber languages and introduced them into public schools
Languages:
Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)
Religions:
Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1% (2012 est.)
religious affiliation:
Demographic profile:
For the first two-thirds of the 20th century, Algeria’s high fertility rate caused its population to grow rapidly. However, about a decade after independence from France in 1962 the total fertility rate fell dramatically from 7 children per woman in the 1970s to about 2.4 in 2000, slowing Algeria’s population growth rate by the late 1980s. The lower fertility rate was mainly the result of women’s rising age at first marriage (virtually all Algerian children being born in wedlock) and to a lesser extent the wider use of contraceptives. Later marriages and a preference for smaller families are attributed to increases in women’s education and participation in the labor market; higher unemployment; and a shortage of housing forcing multiple generations to live together. The average woman’s age at first marriage increased from about 19 in the mid-1950s to 24 in the mid-1970s to 30.5 in the late 1990s.
Algeria’s fertility rate experienced an unexpected upturn in the early 2000s, as the average woman’s age at first marriage dropped slightly. The reversal in fertility could represent a temporary fluctuation in marriage age or, less likely, a decrease in the steady rate of contraceptive use.
Thousands of Algerian peasants – mainly Berber men from the Kabylia region – faced with land dispossession and economic hardship under French rule migrated temporarily to France to work in manufacturing and mining during the first half of the 20th century. This movement accelerated during World War I, when Algerians filled in for French factory workers or served as soldiers. In the years following independence, low-skilled Algerian workers and Algerians who had supported the French (harkis) emigrated en masse to France. Tighter French immigration rules and Algiers’ decision to cease managing labor migration to France in the 1970s limited legal emigration largely to family reunification.
Not until Algeria’s civil war in the 1990s did the country again experience substantial outmigration. Many Algerians legally entered Tunisia without visas claiming to be tourists and then stayed as workers. Other Algerians headed to Europe seeking asylum, although France imposed restrictions. Sub-Saharan African migrants came to Algeria after its civil war to work in agriculture and mining. In the 2000s, a wave of educated Algerians went abroad seeking skilled jobs in a wider range of destinations, increasing their presence in North America and Spain. At the same time, legal foreign workers principally from China and Egypt came to work in Algeria’s construction and oil sectors. Illegal migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Malians, Nigeriens, and Gambians, continue to come to Algeria in search of work or to use it as a stepping stone to Libya and Europe.
Since 1975, Algeria also has been the main recipient of Sahrawi refugees from the ongoing conflict in Western Sahara. An estimated 90,000 Sahrawis live in five refugee camps in southwestern Algeria near Tindouf.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 29.31% (male 6,148,568/female 5,858,922)
15-24 years: 15.3% (male 3,208,185/female 3,061,179)
25-54 years: 42.93% (male 8,906,160/female 8,682,894)
55-64 years: 6.81% (male 1,410,298/female 1,378,282)
65 years and over: 5.65% (male 1,079,218/female 1,235,737) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 52.7
youth dependency ratio: 43.8
elderly dependency ratio: 9
potential support ratio: 11.2 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 28.1 years
male: 27.8 years
female: 28.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Population growth rate:
1.7% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Birth rate:
22.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Death rate:
4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Net migration rate:
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Population distribution:
the vast majority of the populace is found in the extreme northern part of the country along the Mediterranean Coast
Urbanization:
urban population: 71.9% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
ALGIERS (capital) 2.594 million; Oran 858,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
140 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Infant mortality rate:
total: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77 years
male: 75.6 years
female: 78.4 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Total fertility rate:
2.7 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
57.1% (2012/13)
Health expenditures:
7.2% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 74
Physicians density:
1.19 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density:
1.9 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 84.3% of population
rural: 81.8% of population
total: 83.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15.7% of population
rural: 18.2% of population
total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 89.8% of population
rural: 82.2% of population
total: 87.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.2% of population
rural: 17.8% of population
total: 12.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
<.01% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
13,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<200 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
27.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 38
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 102
Education expenditures:
4.3% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 97
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80.2%
male: 87.2%
female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 25.2%
male: 22.1%
female: 41.5% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence:
5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest approved by referendum 23 February 1989
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or through the president with the support of three-fourths of the members of both houses of Parliament in joint session; passage requires approval by both houses, approval by referendum, and promulgation by the president; the president can forego a referendum if the Constitutional Council determines the proposed amendment does not conflict with basic constitutional principles; articles including the republican form of government, the integrity and unity of the country, and fundamental citizens’ liberties and rights cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 16 August 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (2-term limit reinstated by constitutional amendment in February 2016); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister nominated by the president after consultation with the majority party in Parliament
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house with 144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National People's Assembly (lower house with 462 seats including 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2015 (next to be held in December 2018); National People's Assembly - last held on 4 May 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
election results: Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 164, RND 97, MSP-FC 33, TAJ 19, Ennahda-FJD 15, FFS 14, El Mostakbel 14, MPA 13, PT 11, RCD 9, ANR 8, MEN 4, other 33, independent 28
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supr?me, (consists of 150 judges organized into 8 chambers: Civil, Commercial and Maritime,
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals
Political parties and leaders:
Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]
Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]
Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD]
Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar GHOUL]
Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed BENHAMOU]
Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]
Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]
Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]
Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Mohamed DOUIBI]
Justice and Development Front or FJD [Abdellah DJABALLAH]
Movement of National Understanding or MEN
Movement for National Reform or Islah [Djilali GHOUINI]
Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MOKRI]
National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]
National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA]
National Liberation Front or FLN [Djamel OULD ABBES]
National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD [Dalila YALAQUI]
National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI]
National Republican Alliance or ANR [Belkacem SAHLI]
New Dawn Party or PFJ [Tahar BENBAIBECHE]
New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane DJILALI]
Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]
Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed SAID]
Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]
Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa BOUCHACHI]
Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH]
Vanguard of Freedoms [Ali BENFLIS]
Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]
Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]
SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]
Youth Action Rally or RAJ
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, CAEU, CD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Madjid BOUGUERRA (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John P. DESROCHER (since 5 September 2017)
embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algieria
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000
FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2064
Flag description:
two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, 5-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness
National symbol(s):
star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red
National anthem:
name: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)
lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI
note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces

Economy

Economy - overview:
Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy, pursuing an explicit import substitution policy.
Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 30% of GDP, 60% of budget revenues, and nearly 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world - including the 3rd-largest reserves of shale gas - and is the 6th-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in proven oil reserves. Hydrocarbon exports enabled Algeria to maintain macroeconomic stability, amass large foreign currency reserves, and maintain low external debt while global oil prices were high. With lower oil prices since 2014, Algeria’s foreign exchange reserves have declined by more than half and its oil stabilization fund has decreased from about $20 billion at the end of 2013 to about $7 billion in 2017, which is the statutory minimum.
Declining oil prices have also reduced the government’s ability to use state-driven growth to distribute rents and fund generous public subsidies, and the government has been under pressure to reduce spending. Over the past three years, the government has enacted incremental increases in some taxes, resulting in modest increases in prices for gasoline, cigarettes, alcohol, and certain imported goods, but it has refrained from reducing subsidies, particularly for education, healthcare, and housing programs.
Algiers has increased protectionist measures since 2015 to limit its import bill and encourage domestic production of non-oil and gas industries. Since 2015, the government has imposed additional restrictions on access to foreign exchange for imports, and import quotas for specific products, such as cars. In January 2018 the government imposed an indefinite suspension on the importation of roughly 850 products, subject to periodic review.
President BOUTEFLIKA announced in fall 2017 that Algeria intends to develop its non-conventional energy resources. Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. Algeria has not increased non-hydrocarbon exports, and hydrocarbon exports have declined because of field depletion and increased domestic demand.
Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$629.3 billion (2017 est.)
$620.2 billion (2016 est.)
$600.4 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 37
GDP (official exchange rate):
$175.5 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.5% (2017 est.)
3.3% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$15,100 (2017 est.)
$15,200 (2016 est.)
$15,000 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 110
Gross national saving:
34.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 42.7%
government consumption: 21.4%
investment in fixed capital: 42.7%
investment in inventories: 7.6%
exports of goods and services: 21%
imports of goods and services: -35.5% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 13.2%
industry: 36.1%
services: 50.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Industries:
petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
0.9% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Labor force:
11.82 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 30.9%
industry: 30.9%
services: 58.4% (2011 est.) (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate:
11.7% (2017 est.)
10.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Population below poverty line:
23% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
35.3 (1995 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Budget:
revenues: $52.08 billion
expenditures: $70.74 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
29.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-10.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Public debt:
19.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
18% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt
country comparison to the world: 188
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.5% (2017 est.)
6.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Central bank discount rate:
4% (31 December 2010 est.)
4% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
8% (31 December 2017 est.)
8% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Stock of narrow money:
$86.45 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$85.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Stock of broad money:
$126.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$125 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Stock of domestic credit:
$105.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$86.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-22.87 billion (2017 est.)
$-26.31 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Exports:
$33.15 billion (2017 est.)
$29.06 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Exports - commodities:
petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)
Exports - partners:
Italy 17.4%, Spain 12.9%, US 12.9%, France 11.4%, Brazil 5.4%, Netherlands 4.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Canada 4.3% (2016)
Imports:
$49.99 billion (2017 est.)
$49.43 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Imports - commodities:
capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners:
China 17.8%, France 10.1%, Italy 9.8%, Spain 7.6%, Germany 6.4%, US 4.9%, Turkey 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$97.67 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$114.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Debt - external:
$8.163 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.088 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$26.24 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.123 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.025 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Exchange rates:
Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -
108.9 (2017 est.)
109.44 (2016 est.)
109.44 (2015 est.)
100.69 (2014 est.)
80.58 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 99%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2016)
Electricity - production:
64.67 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Electricity - consumption:
53.44 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Electricity - exports:
641 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Electricity - imports:
610 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
17.12 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
97.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
1.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Crude oil - production:
1.348 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Crude oil - exports:
798,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Crude oil - imports:
5,880 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Crude oil - proved reserves:
12.2 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Refined petroleum products - production:
657,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
428,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Refined petroleum products - exports:
575,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Refined petroleum products - imports:
62,480 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Natural gas - production:
83.04 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Natural gas - consumption:
44.32 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Natural gas - exports:
43.42 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Natural gas - proved reserves:
4.504 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
128 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 3,404,709
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 47,041,321
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Telephone system:
general assessment: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued; in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria
domestic: a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; in 2016, mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 120 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operates several national networks and roughly 40 regional radio stations (2009)
Internet country code:
.dz
Internet users:
total: 17,291,463
percent of population: 42.9% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 74
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,910,835
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 24,723,377 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
7T (2016)
Airports:
157 (2016)
country comparison to the world: 36
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 64
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 93
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m: 34 (2013)
Heliports:
3 (2013)
Pipelines:
condensate 2,600 km; gas 16,415 km; liquid petroleum gas 3,447 km; oil 7,036 km; refined products 144 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.432-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 47
Roadways:
total: 113,655 km
paved: 87,605 km (includes 645 km of expressways)
unpaved: 26,050 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 43
Merchant marine:
total: 110
by type: bulk carrier 3, general cargo 13, oil tanker 9, other 85 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 81
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikda

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
6.55% of GDP (2016)
6.32% of GDP (2015)
5.54% of GDP (2014)
4.84% of GDP (2013)
4.46% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 5
Military branches:
People's National Army (Armee Nationale Populaire, ANP): Land Forces (Forces Terrestres, FT), Navy of the Republic of Algeria (Marine de la Republique Algerienne, MRA), Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jaza'eriya, QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 19-30 years of age for compulsory service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2018)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Algeria and many other states reject Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): more than 100,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf) (2018)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Algeria is a transit and, to a lesser extent, a destination and source country for women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and, to a lesser extent, men subjected to forced labor; criminal networks, sometimes extending to sub-Saharan Africa and to Europe, are involved in human smuggling and trafficking in Algeria; sub-Saharan adults enter Algeria voluntarily but illegally, often with the aid of smugglers, for onward travel to Europe, but some of the women are forced into prostitution, domestic service, and begging; some sub-Saharan men, mostly from Mali, are forced into domestic servitude; some Algerian women and children are also forced into prostitution domestically
tier rating: Tier 3 – Algeria does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so: some officials denied the existence of human trafficking, hindering law enforcement efforts; the government reported its first conviction under its anti-trafficking law; one potential trafficking case was investigated in 2014, but no suspected offenders were arrested; no progress was made in identifying victims among vulnerable groups or referring them to NGO-run protection service, which left trafficking victims subject to arrest and detention; no anti-trafficking public awareness or educational campaigns were conducted (2015)

Economic Indicators for Algeria including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Algeria economy.