Eritrea - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Since formal independence from Ethiopia in 1993, Eritrea has faced many economic problems, including lack of financial resources and chronic drought, which have been exacerbated by restrictive economic policies. Eritrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. Like the economies of many African nations, a large share of the population - nearly 80% in Eritrea - is engaged in subsistence agriculture, but the sector only produces a small share of the country's total output. Since the conclusion of the Ethiopia-Eritrea...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Gross Domestic Product 2011 8,066,000,000 7,421,802,400 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2011 4,008,780,100 3,026,843,500 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2011 810,203,100 707,154,800 NCU Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2011 40,094,000,000 32,549,482,500 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2011 810,203,100 707,154,800 NCU Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Unemployment Rate 2017 6.6 6.5 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2011 2,105,349 2,066,399 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods and Services 2011 5,764,051,900 1,558,798,700 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2011 9,283,192,100 7,598,777,800 NCU Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2011 2,394,184,200 2,165,503,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2011 2,841,075,500 852,997,900 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods 2000 Q4 6,074,226 22,761,458 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2000 Q4 -104,315,463 -119,773,958 USD, NSA Quarterly
Imports of Goods 2000 Q4 110,389,690 142,535,416 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2000 Q4 -18,926,804 -24,617,708 USD, NSA Quarterly
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2011 43,613,140,200 38,589,461,600 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2009 -4,452,000,000 -5,388,000,000 current LCU Annual
Gross External Debt 2009 13,766,900,000 13,144,100,000 current LCU Annual
Government Revenues 2009 4,513,000,000 4,456,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Money Market Rate 2007 -13.44 -13.61 % Annual
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Change in Inventories 2011 0 0 NCU Annual
Real Change in Inventories 2011 0 0 NCU Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2016 4,954,645 4,846,976 # Annual
Birth Rate 2015 32.83 33.47 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 7.07 7.3 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -159,999 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
After independence from Italian colonial control in 1941 and 10 years of British administrative control, the UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. A UN peacekeeping operation was established that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) created in April 2003 was tasked "to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902, and 1908) and applicable international law." The EEBC on 30 November 2007 remotely demarcated the border, assigning the town of Badme to Eritrea, despite Ethiopia's maintaining forces there from the time of the 1998-2000 war. Eritrea insisted that the UN terminate its peacekeeping mission on 31 July 2008. Eritrea has accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and repeatedly called on Ethiopia to remove its troops. Ethiopia has not accepted the demarcation decision, and neither party has entered into meaningful dialogue to resolve the impasse. Eritrea is subject to several UN Security Council Resolutions (initially in 2009 and renewed annually) imposing an arms embargo and a travel ban and assets freeze on certain individuals, in view of evidence that it has supported armed opposition groups in the region.

Geography

Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 39 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 117,600 sq km
land: 101,000 sq km
water: 16,600 sq km
country comparison to the world: 102
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Area comparison map:
Land boundaries:
total: 1,840 km
border countries (3): Djibouti 125 km, Ethiopia 1,033 km, Sudan 682 km
Coastline:
2,234 km (mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in Red Sea 1,083 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate:
hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands
Terrain:
dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Elevation:
mean elevation: 853 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: near Kulul within the Danakil Depression -75 m
highest point: Soira 3,018 m
Natural resources:
gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish
Land use:
agricultural land: 75.1%
arable land 6.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.3%
forest: 15.1%
other: 9.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
210 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
density is highest in the center of the country in and around the cities of Asmara (capital) and Keren; smaller settlements exist in the north and south
Natural hazards:
frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes; locust swarms
volcanism: Dubbi (1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993

People & Society

Population:
5,918,919 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Nationality:
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean
Ethnic groups:
nine recognized ethnic groups: Tigrinya 55%, Tigre 30%, Saho 4%, Kunama 2%, Rashaida 2%, Bilen 2%, other (Afar, Beni Amir, Nera) 5% (2010 est.)
Languages:
Tigrinya (official), Arabic (official), English (official), Tigre, Kunama, Afar, other Cushitic languages
Religions:
Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
Demographic profile:
Eritrea is a persistently poor country that has made progress in some socioeconomic categories but not in others. Education and human capital formation are national priorities for facilitating economic development and eradicating poverty. To this end, Eritrea has made great strides in improving adult literacy – doubling the literacy rate over the last 20 years – in large part because of its successful adult education programs. The overall literacy rate was estimated to be almost 74% in 2015; more work needs to be done to raise female literacy and school attendance among nomadic and rural communities. Subsistence farming fails to meet the needs of Eritrea’s growing population because of repeated droughts, dwindling arable land, overgrazing, soil erosion, and a shortage of farmers due to conscription and displacement. The government’s emphasis on spending on defense over agriculture and its lack of foreign exchange to import food also contribute to food insecurity.
Eritrea has been a leading refugee source country since at least the 1960s, when its 30-year war for independence from Ethiopia began. Since gaining independence in 1993, Eritreans have continued migrating to Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen, Egypt, or Israel because of a lack of basic human rights or political freedom, educational and job opportunities, or to seek asylum because of militarization. Eritrea’s large diaspora has been a source of vital remittances, funding its war for independence and providing 30% of the country’s GDP annually since it became independent.
In the last few years, Eritreans have increasingly been trafficked and held hostage by Bedouins in the Sinai Desert, where they are victims of organ harvesting, rape, extortion, and torture. Some Eritrean trafficking victims are kidnapped after being smuggled to Sudan or Ethiopia, while others are kidnapped from within or around refugee camps or crossing Eritrea’s borders. Eritreans composed approximately 90% of the conservatively estimated 25,000-30,000 victims of Sinai trafficking from 2009-2013, according to a 2013 consultancy firm report.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.17% (male 1,195,210/female 1,182,603)
15-24 years: 19.57% (male 576,315/female 582,143)
25-54 years: 32.63% (male 950,121/female 981,163)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 94,767/female 124,528)
65 years and over: 3.92% (male 97,530/female 134,539) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 85
youth dependency ratio: 78.3
elderly dependency ratio: 6.8
potential support ratio: 14.8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.7 years
male: 19.2 years
female: 20.1 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
Population growth rate:
0.85% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Birth rate:
29.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Death rate:
7.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Net migration rate:
-13.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Population distribution:
density is highest in the center of the country in and around the cities of Asmara (capital) and Keren; smaller settlements exist in the north and south
Urbanization:
urban population: 23.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.72% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
ASMARA (capital) 804,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.74 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
501 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Infant mortality rate:
total: 45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.2 years
male: 62.7 years
female: 67.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Total fertility rate:
3.99 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
8.4% (2010)
Health expenditures:
3.3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 177
Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 73.2% of population
rural: 53.3% of population
total: 57.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 26.8% of population
rural: 46.7% of population
total: 42.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 44.5% of population
rural: 7.3% of population
total: 15.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 55.5% of population
rural: 92.7% of population
total: 84.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
15,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
<1000 (2016 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
5% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 183
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
38.8% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 7
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.8%
male: 82.4%
female: 65.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 5 years
male: 6 years
female: 5 years (2014)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form: Hagere Ertra
local short form: Ertra
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia
etymology: the country name derives from the ancient Greek appellation "Erythra Thalassa" meaning Red Sea, which is the major water body bordering the country
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Asmara (Asmera)
geographic coordinates: 15 20 N, 38 56 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
6 regions (zobatat, singular - zoba); Anseba, Debub (South), Debubawi K'eyih Bahri (Southern Red Sea), Gash Barka, Ma'akel (Central), Semenawi Keyih Bahri (Northern Red Sea)
Independence:
24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 May (1991)
Constitution:
history: ratified by the Constituent Assembly 23 May 1997 (not fully implemented); note - drafting of a new constitution, which began in 2014, continued into 2017
amendments: proposed by the president of Eritrea or by assent of at least one-half of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least an initial three-quarters majority vote by the Assembly and, after one year, final passage by at least four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic religious law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Eritrea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly
head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); the only election was held on 8 June 1993, following independence from Ethiopia (next election postponed indefinitely)
election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president by the transitional National Assembly; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki (PFDJ) 95%, other 5%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Hagerawi Baito (150 seats; 75 members indirectly elected by the ruling party and 75 directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly, which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to form a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled for December 2001 were postponed indefinitely due to the war with Ethiopia
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): High Court (consists of 20 judges and organized into civil, commercial, criminal, labor, administrative, and customary sections)
judge selection and term of office: High Court judges appointed by the president
subordinate courts: regional/zonal courts; community courts; special courts; sharia courts (for issues dealing with Muslim marriage, inheritance, and family); military courts
Political parties and leaders:
People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afworki] (the only party recognized by the government)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Eritrean Kunama or DMLEK
Eritrean Democratic Alliance or EDA
Eritrean Islamic Party for Justice and Development or EIPJD (includes the Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJM), Eritrean Islamic Salvation, and the Eritrean Islamic Foundation)
Eritrean National Congress for Democratic Change or ENCDC
Eritrean National Salvation Front or ENSF
Eritrean People's Democratic Party or EPDP
Red Sea Afar Democratic Organization or RSADO
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires BERHANE Gebrehiwet Solomon (since 15 March 2011)
chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991
FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Natalie E. BROWN (since September 2016)
embassy: 179 Ala Street, Asmara
mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone: [291] (1) 120004
FAX: [291] (1) 127584
Flag description:
red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle; green stands for the country's agriculture economy, red signifies the blood shed in the fight for freedom, and blue symbolizes the bounty of the sea; the wreath-olive branch symbol is similar to that on the first flag of Eritrea from 1952; the shape of the red triangle broadly mimics the shape of the country
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, and Vanuatu
National symbol(s):
camel; national colors: green, red, blue
National anthem:
name: "Ertra, Ertra, Ertra" (Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)
lyrics/music: SOLOMON Tsehaye Beraki/Isaac Abraham MEHAREZGI and ARON Tekle Tesfatsion
note: adopted 1993; upon independence from Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview:
Since formal independence from Ethiopia in 1993, Eritrea has faced many economic problems, including lack of financial resources and chronic drought, which have been exacerbated by restrictive economic policies. Eritrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. Like the economies of many African nations, a large share of the population - nearly 80% in Eritrea - is engaged in subsistence agriculture, but the sector only produces a small share of the country's total output.
Since the conclusion of the Ethiopia-Eritrea war in 2000, the government has expanded military- and party-owned businesses to complete President ISAIAS's development agenda. The government has strictly controlled the use of foreign currency by limiting access and availability; new regulations in 2013 aimed at relaxing currency controls have had little economic effect. Few large private enterprises exist in Eritrea and most operate in conjunction with government partners, including a number of large international mining ventures, which began production in 2013. In late 2015, the Government of Eritrea introduced a new currency, retaining the name nakfa, and restricted the amount of hard currency individuals could withdraw from banks per month. The changeover has resulted in exchange fluctuations and the scarcity of hard currency available in the market.
While reliable statistics on Eritrea are difficult to obtain, erratic rainfall and the percentage of the labor force tied up in national service continue to interfere with agricultural production and economic development. Eritrea's harvests generally cannot meet the food needs of the country without supplemental grain purchases. Copper, potash, and gold production are likely to continue to drive economic growth and government revenue over the next few years, but military spending will continue to compete with development and investment plans.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$9.167 billion (2016 est.)
$8.731 billion (2015 est.)
$8.244 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 159
GDP (official exchange rate):
$5.352 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.7% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
5% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,400 (2016 est.)
$1,400 (2015 est.)
$1,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 220
Gross national saving:
4% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
4% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 81%
government consumption: 23.6%
investment in fixed capital: 9.1%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 9.8%
imports of goods and services: -23.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 12.1%
industry: 29.5%
services: 58.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, sisal; livestock, goats; fish
Industries:
food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
12.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Labor force:
2.623 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.6% (2013 est.)
10% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Population below poverty line:
50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $1.554 billion
expenditures: $2.166 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
29% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-11.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Public debt:
120.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
121.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (2016 est.)
9.8% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA%
Stock of narrow money:
$2.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.386 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Stock of broad money:
$5.993 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.221 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Stock of domestic credit:
$5.236 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.676 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Current account balance:
$-3 million (2016 est.)
$-250.3 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Exports:
$485.4 million (2016 est.)
$415.4 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Exports - commodities:
gold and other minerals, livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small industry manufactures
Exports - partners:
China 57.7%, India 21.9%, South Korea 4.9%, Serbia 4.2% (2016)
Imports:
$1.049 billion (2016 est.)
$1.025 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Imports - commodities:
machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
Imports - partners:
China 18.1%, UAE 15.4%, Saudi Arabia 13.7%, Italy 6.5%, Turkey 5.9%, Brazil 5.3%, Belgium 4.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$218.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$209.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Debt - external:
$875.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$873.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Exchange rates:
nakfa (ERN) per US dollar -
15.375 (2016 est.)
15.375 (2015 est.)
15.375 (2014 est.)
15.375 (2013 est.)
15.375 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 4,300,000
electrification - total population: 32%
electrification - urban areas: 86%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)
Electricity - production:
383.8 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Electricity - consumption:
329.8 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
141,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
98.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 131
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
3,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Refined petroleum products - imports:
3,598 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
country comparison to the world: 136
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 66,086
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 506,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Telephone system:
general assessment: woefully inadequate service provided by state-owned telecom monopoly; most fixed-line telephones are in Asmara; cell phone use only slowly increasing throughout the country; no data service
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership is less than 10 per 100 persons
international: country code - 291 (2016)
Broadcast media:
government controls broadcast media with private ownership prohibited; 1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio operates 2 networks; purchases of satellite dishes and subscriptions to international broadcast media are permitted (2007)
Internet country code:
.er
Internet users:
total: 69,095
percent of population: 1.2% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
E3 (2016)
Airports:
13 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 151
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports:
1 (2013)
Railways:
total: 306 km
narrow gauge: 306 km 0.950-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 122
Roadways:
total: 4,010 km
paved: 874 km
unpaved: 3,136 km (2000)
country comparison to the world: 158
Merchant marine:
total: 4
by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 130
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Assab, Massawa

Military & Security

Military branches:
Eritrean Armed Forces: Eritrean Ground Forces, Eritrean Navy, Eritrean Air Force (includes Air Defense Force) (2011)
Military service age and obligation:
18-40 years of age for male and female voluntary and compulsory military service; 16-month conscript service obligation (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Eritrea is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor domestically and, to a lesser extent, sex and labor trafficking abroad; the country’s national service program is often abused, with conscripts detained indefinitely and subjected to forced labor; Eritrean migrants, often fleeing national service, face strict exit control procedures and limited access to passports and visas, making them vulnerable to trafficking; Eritrean secondary school children are required to take part in public works projects during their summer breaks and must attend military and educational camp in their final year to obtain a high school graduation certificate and to gain access to higher education and some jobs; some Eritreans living in or near refugee camps, particularly in Sudan, are kidnapped by criminal groups and held for ransom in the Sinai Peninsula and Libya, where they are subjected to forced labor and abuse
tier rating: Tier 3 – Eritrea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government failed to investigate or prosecute any trafficking offenses or to identify or protect any victims; while the government continued to warn citizens of the dangers of human trafficking through awareness-raising events and poster campaigns, authorities lacked an understanding of the crime, conflating trafficking with transnational migration; Eritrea is not a party to the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2015)

Economic Indicators for Eritrea including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Eritrea economy.