Sao Tome and Principe - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

This small, poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence in 1975. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement. Sao Tome and Principe has to import fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and food, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in global commodity prices. Maintaining control of inflation, fiscal discipline, and increasing flows of foreign direct investment into the nascent oil sector are major economic problems facing the country. The government also has attempted to reduce...

Continue reading View Factbook for Sao Tome and Principe

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 7,592,224,433,291 6,978,010,733,692 NCU Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 3,924,092,642,373 3,768,114,063,865 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) 2016 162.34 153.98 Index 2010=100 Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 15,084 14,999 # Annual
Labor Force 2016 66,078 64,373 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods 2017 Q4 32,313,976 31,471,261 USD, NSA Quarterly
Current Account Balance 2017 Q4 -14,941,116 -20,881,653 USD, NSA Quarterly
Balance of Goods 2017 Q4 -25,767,451 -27,455,076 USD, NSA Quarterly
Exports of Goods 2017 Q4 6,546,525 4,016,185 USD, NSA Quarterly
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2000 16,267,369 constant 2000 USD Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Expenditures 2011 850,538,000,000 736,681,000,000 current LCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 -558,904,000,000 -407,563,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Jun 2017 9 10 % - End of period Monthly
Monetary Policy Rate Jun 2017 9 10 % - End of period Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2016 199,910 195,553 # Annual
Birth Rate 2015 34.33 34.82 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2015 6.81 6.92 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 -5,599 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with African plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and four failed, non-violent coup attempts in 1995, 1998, 2003, and 2009. In 2012, three opposition parties combined in a no confidence vote to bring down the majority government of former Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA, but in 2014, legislative elections returned him to the office. President Evaristo CARVALHO, of the same political party as Prime Minister TROVOADA, was elected in September 2016, marking a rare instance in which the positions of president and prime minister are held by the same party. New oil discoveries in the Gulf of Guinea may attract increased attention to the small island nation.

Geography

Location:
Central Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, just north of the Equator, west of Gabon
Geographic coordinates:
1 00 N, 7 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 964 sq km
land: 964 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 185
Area - comparative:
more than five times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
209 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Terrain:
volcanic, mountainous
Elevation:
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m
Natural resources:
fish, hydropower
Land use:
agricultural land: 50.7%
arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 40.6%; permanent pasture 1%
forest: 28.1%
other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
100 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
Sao Tome, the capital city, has roughly a quarter of the nation's population; Santo Antonio is the largest town on Principe; the northern areas of both islands have the highest population densities
Natural hazards:
flooding
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are mountainous

People & Society

Population:
201,025 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Nationality:
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean
Ethnic groups:
mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cabo Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese), Asians (mostly Chinese)
Languages:
Portuguese 98.4% (official), Forro 36.2%, Cabo Verdian 8.5%, French 6.8%, Angolar 6.6%, English 4.9%, Lunguie 1%, other (including sign language) 2.4%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.)
Religions:
Catholic 55.7%, Adventist 4.1%, Assembly of God 3.4%, New Apostolic 2.9%, Mana 2.3%, Universal Kingdom of God 2%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 6.2%, none 21.2%, unspecified 1% (2012 est.)
Demographic profile:
Sao Tome and Principe’s youthful age structure – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25 – and high fertility rate ensure future population growth. Although Sao Tome has a net negative international migration rate, emigration is not a sufficient safety valve to reduce already high levels of unemployment and poverty. While literacy and primary school attendance have improved in recent years, Sao Tome still struggles to improve its educational quality and to increase its secondary school completion rate. Despite some improvements in education and access to healthcare, Sao Tome and Principe has much to do to decrease its high poverty rate, create jobs, and increase its economic growth.
The population of Sao Tome and Principe descends primarily from the islands’ colonial Portuguese settlers, who first arrived in the late 15th century, and the much larger number of African slaves brought in for sugar production and the slave trade. For about 100 years after the abolition of slavery in 1876, the population was further shaped by the widespread use of imported unskilled contract laborers from Portugal’s other African colonies, who worked on coffee and cocoa plantations. In the first decades after abolition, most workers were brought from Angola under a system similar to slavery. While Angolan laborers were technically free, they were forced or coerced into long contracts that were automatically renewed and extended to their children. Other contract workers from Mozambique and famine-stricken Cape Verde first arrived in the early 20th century under short-term contracts and had the option of repatriation, although some chose to remain in Sao Tome and Principe.
Today’s Sao Tomean population consists of mesticos (creole descendants of the European immigrants and African slaves that first inhabited the islands), forros (descendants of freed African slaves), angolares (descendants of runaway African slaves that formed a community in the south of Sao Tome Island and today are fishermen), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (locally born children of contract laborers), and lesser numbers of Europeans and Asians.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.85% (male 42,781/female 41,354)
15-24 years: 20.68% (male 21,070/female 20,507)
25-54 years: 30.82% (male 30,454/female 31,509)
55-64 years: 3.81% (male 3,515/female 4,140)
65 years and over: 2.83% (male 2,523/female 3,172) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 86.7
youth dependency ratio: 81.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.8 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.4 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
Population growth rate:
1.72% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Birth rate:
32.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Death rate:
6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Net migration rate:
-8.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Population distribution:
Sao Tome, the capital city, has roughly a quarter of the nation's population; Santo Antonio is the largest town on Principe; the northern areas of both islands have the highest population densities
Urbanization:
urban population: 66.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.03% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
SAO TOME (capital) 71,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008/09 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
156 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Infant mortality rate:
total: 45.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 47.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.3 years
male: 63.9 years
female: 66.7 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Total fertility rate:
4.25 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
40.6% (2014)
Health expenditures:
8.4% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 49
Hospital bed density:
2.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 93.6% of population
total: 97.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 6.4% of population
total: 2.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 40.8% of population
rural: 23.3% of population
total: 34.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 59.2% of population
rural: 76.7% of population
total: 65.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
12.4% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 133
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
8.8% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 50
Education expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 6
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.9%
male: 81.8%
female: 68.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 20.8%
male: NA
female: NA (2012 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
etymology: Sao Tome was named after Saint THOMAS the Apostle by the Portuguese who discovered the island on 21 December 1470 (or 1471), the saint's feast day; Principe is a shortening of the original Portuguese name of "Ilha do Principe" (Isle of the Prince) referring to the Prince of Portugal to whom duties on the island's sugar crop were paid
Government type:
semi-presidential republic
Capital:
name: Sao Tome
geographic coordinates: 0 20 N, 6 44 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome
Independence:
12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Constitution:
history: approved 5 November 1975
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; the Assembly can propose to the president of the republic that an amendment be submitted to a referendum; revised several times, last in 2006 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil law base on the Portuguese model and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Sao Tome and Principe
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Evaristo CARVALHO (since 3 September 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Patrice Emery TROVOADA (since 29 November 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 July 2016 and 7 August 2016 (next to be held in July 2021); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president
election results: Evaristo CARVALHO elected president; percent of vote - Evaristo CARVALHO (ADI) 49.8%, Manuel Pinto DA COSTA (independent) 24.8%, Maria DAS NEVES (MLSTP-PSD) 24.1%; note - first round results for CARVALHO were revised downward from just over 50%, prompting the 7 August runoff; however, on 1 August 2016 DA COSTA withdrew from the runoff, citing voting irregularities, and CARVALHO was declared the winner
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - ADI 52.6%, MLSTP-PSD 24.7%, PCD-GR 11%, other 11.7%; seats by party - ADI 33, MLSTP-PSD 16, PCD-GR 5, other 1
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal Justica (consists of 5 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 5 judges, 3 of whom are from the Supreme Court)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and elected by the National Assembly for 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Audit Court
Political parties and leaders:
Force for Democratic Change Movement or MDFM [Fradique Bandeira Melo DE MENEZES]
Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Patrice TROVOADA]
Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Aurelio MARTINS]
Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group or PCD-GR [Leonel Mario D'ALVA]
other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Association of Sao Tome and Principe NGOs or FONG
other: media
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CD, CEMAC, CPLP, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Filomeno Azevedo Agostinho das NEVES (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 675 Third Avenue, Suite 1807, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 651-8116
FAX: [1] (212) 651-8117
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the US Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis
Flag description:
three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; green stands for the country's rich vegetation, red recalls the struggle for independence, and yellow represents cocoa, one of the country's main agricultural products; the two stars symbolize the two main islands
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National symbol(s):
palm tree; national colors: green, yellow, red, black
National anthem:
name: "Independencia total" (Total Independence)
lyrics/music: Alda Neves DA GRACA do Espirito Santo/Manuel dos Santos Barreto de Sousa e ALMEIDA
note: adopted 1975

Economy

Economy - overview:
This small, poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence in 1975. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement. Sao Tome and Principe has to import fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and food, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in global commodity prices. Maintaining control of inflation, fiscal discipline, and increasing flows of foreign direct investment into the nascent oil sector are major economic problems facing the country. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies.
Over the years, Sao Tome and Principe has had difficulty servicing its external debt and has relied heavily on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. It benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries program, which helped bring down the country's $300 million debt burden. In April 2011, the country completed a Threshold Country Program with The Millennium Challenge Corporation to help increase tax revenues, reform customs, and improve the business environment. In 2016, Sao Tome and Portugal signed a five-year cooperation agreement worth approximately $64 million, some of which will be provided as loans.
Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. Potential also exists for the development of petroleum resources in Sao Tome and Principe's territorial waters in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea, which are being jointly developed in a 60-40 split with Nigeria, but any actual production is at least several years off. Volatile aid and investment inflows, even with a growing tourism sector, have kept growth moderate at around 4% annually, which is insufficient to alleviate poverty. The IMF in late 2016 expressed concern about the country’s banking sector vulnerabilities.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$638 million (2016 est.)
$606 million (2015 est.)
$576 million (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 209
GDP (official exchange rate):
$351 million (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.1% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
4.1% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,100 (2016 est.)
$3,000 (2015 est.)
$3,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 192
Gross national saving:
21.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
3.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 81.2%
government consumption: 20.8%
investment in fixed capital: 33.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 8.8%
imports of goods and services: -44.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 12.1%
industry: 14.8%
services: 73.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
Industries:
light construction, textiles, soap, beer, fish processing, timber
Industrial production growth rate:
4.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Labor force:
67,870 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 26.1%
industry: 21.4%
services: 52.5% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate:
12.6% (2016 est.)
13.6% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Population below poverty line:
66.2% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $105.6 million
expenditures: $120 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
30.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Public debt:
58.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
56.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.4% (2016 est.)
5.2% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Central bank discount rate:
16% (31 December 2009)
28% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 8
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
19.59% (31 December 2016 est.)
23.31% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Stock of narrow money:
$65.47 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.82 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Stock of broad money:
$116.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$126.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Stock of domestic credit:
$72.19 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.71 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-22 million (2016 est.)
$-68.6 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Exports:
$13.6 million (2016 est.)
$11.3 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Exports - commodities:
cocoa 80%, copra, coffee, palm oil (2010 est.)
Exports - partners:
Germany 23.3%, Netherlands 13.8%, Portugal 10%, Angola 6.4%, South Korea 5.2%, Peru 4.5%, Dominican Republic 4.1% (2016)
Imports:
$119.1 million (2016 est.)
$118.9 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
Imports - commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Portugal 58.8%, Angola 15.2%, China 5.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$61.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.86 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Debt - external:
$308.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$249.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$430.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$409.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Exchange rates:
dobras (STD) per US dollar -
22,149 (2016 est.)
22,149 (2015 est.)
22,091 (2014 est.)
18,466 (2013 est.)
19,068 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 100,000
electrification - total population: 59%
electrification - urban areas: 70%
electrification - rural areas: 40% (2013)
Electricity - production:
66 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Electricity - consumption:
61.38 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016)
country comparison to the world: 205
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
20,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
80% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
20% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017)
country comparison to the world: 202
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Refined petroleum products - imports:
1,001 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
country comparison to the world: 201
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
100,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 5,733
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 132,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 68 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Telephone system:
general assessment: local telephone network of adequate quality with most lines connected to digital switches
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 70 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
1 government-owned TV station; 1 government-owned radio station; 3 independent local radio stations authorized in 2005 with 2 operating at the end of 2006; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code:
.st
Internet users:
total: 50,000
percent of population: 25.8% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 50,716
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
S9 (2016)
Airports:
2 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 206
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Roadways:
total: 320 km
paved: 218 km
unpaved: 102 km (2000)
country comparison to the world: 206
Merchant marine:
total: 3
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (China 1, Greece 1) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 139
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Sao Tome

Military & Security

Military branches:
Armed Forces of Sao Tome and Principe (Forcas Armadas de Sao Tome e Principe, FASTP): Army, Coast Guard of Sao Tome e Principe (Guarda Costeira de Sao Tome e Principe, GCSTP; also called "Navy"), Presidential Guard, National Guard (2015)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; 17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service (2012)
Military - note:
Sao Tome and Principe's army is a tiny force with almost no resources at its disposal and would be wholly ineffective operating unilaterally; infantry equipment is considered simple to operate and maintain but may require refurbishment or replacement after 25 years in tropical climates; poor pay, working conditions, and alleged nepotism in the promotion of officers have been problems in the past, as reflected in the 1995 and 2003 coups; these issues are being addressed with foreign assistance aimed at improving the army and its focus on realistic security concerns; command is exercised from the president, through the Minister of Defense, to the Chief of the Armed Forces (infantry, technical issues) and the Chief of the General Staff (logistics, administration, finances) (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none

Economic Indicators for Sao Tome and Principe including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Sao Tome and Principe economy.