Bangladesh - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Bangladesh's economy has grown roughly 6% per year since 1996 despite prolonged periods of political instability, poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the services sector, almost half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Garment exports, the backbone of Bangladesh's industrial sector, accounted for more than 80% of total exports and surpassed $25 billion in 2016. The sector continues...

Continue reading View Factbook for Bangladesh

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Consumption 2016 1,021,088,000,000 819,176,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2016 2,829,704,000,000 2,598,219,000,000 NCU Annual
Investment 2016 5,138,386,000,000 4,378,651,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 5,138,386,000,000 4,378,651,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2016 2,829,704,000,000 2,598,219,000,000 NCU Annual
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 27,056,930 27,265,126 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 3,691,794,000,000 3,751,508,000,000 NCU Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 2,885,169,000,000 2,627,897,000,000 NCU Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Gross External Debt 2017 Q3 0 0 USD, NSA Quarterly
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Lending Rate Jun 2017 5 5 % - End of period Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2013 84 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2012 -2,526,483 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
Muslim conversions and settlement in the region now referred to as Bangladesh began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans established trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won the independence war for Bangladesh in 1971.
The post-independence AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) in 1978. That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections occurred in 1991. The BNP and AL alternated in power between 1991 and 2013, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. In January 2014, the incumbent AL won the national election by an overwhelming majority after the BNP boycotted, extending HASINA's term as prime minister. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has reduced the poverty rate from over half of the population to less than a third, achieved Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health, and made great progress in food security since independence. The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6% over the last two decades and the country reached World Bank lower-middle income status in 2015.

Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Geographic coordinates:
24 00 N, 90 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 148,460 sq km
land: 130,170 sq km
water: 18,290 sq km
country comparison to the world: 95
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined; slightly smaller than Iowa
Land boundaries:
total: 4,413 km
border countries (2): Burma 271 km, India 4,142 km
Coastline:
580 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to the outer limits of the continental margin
Climate:
tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain:
mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Elevation:
mean elevation: 85 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Natural resources:
natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Land use:
agricultural land: 70.1%
arable land 59%; permanent crops 6.5%; permanent pasture 4.6%
forest: 11.1%
other: 18.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
53,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards:
droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Environment - current issues:
many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal

People & Society

Population:
157,826,578 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Nationality:
noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladeshi
Ethnic groups:
Bengali at least 98%, ethnic groups 1.1%
note: Bangladesh's government recognizes 27 ethnic groups under the 2010 Cultural Institution for Small Anthropological Groups Act; other sources estimate there are about 75 ethnic groups; critics of the 2011 census claim that it underestimates the size of Bangladesh's ethnic population (2011 est.)
Languages:
Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)
Religions:
Muslim 89.1%, Hindu 10%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist, Christian) (2013 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.76% (male 22,283,780/female 21,521,977)
15-24 years: 19.36% (male 15,309,543/female 15,241,971)
25-54 years: 39.73% (male 30,094,014/female 32,614,286)
55-64 years: 6.93% (male 5,405,900/female 5,527,330)
65 years and over: 6.23% (male 4,666,033/female 5,161,744) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 52.6
youth dependency ratio: 44.9
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 26.7 years
male: 26 years
female: 27.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Population growth rate:
1.04% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
Birth rate:
18.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Death rate:
5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Net migration rate:
-3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Urbanization:
urban population: 35.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
DHAKA (capital) 17.598 million; Chittagong 4.539 million; Khulna 1.022 million; Rajshahi 844,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
18.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
176 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Infant mortality rate:
total: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 29.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.4 years
male: 71.3 years
female: 75.6 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Total fertility rate:
2.17 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
62.3% (2014)
Health expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 183
Physicians density:
0.39 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density:
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 86.5% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 86.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.5% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 13.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 57.7% of population
rural: 62.1% of population
total: 60.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 42.3% of population
rural: 37.9% of population
total: 39.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
<.01% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
12,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
3.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 191
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
32.6% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 5
Education expenditures:
2.2% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 161
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 72.8%
male: 75.6%
female: 69.9% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 9.4%
male: 9.5%
female: 9.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
local short form: Bangladesh
former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
etymology: the name - a compound of the Bengali words "Bangla" (Bengal) and "desh" (country) - means "Country of Bengal"
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Dhaka
geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
8 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet
Independence:
16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day, 16 December (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December (Victory Day) memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Constitution:
history: previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (pre-independence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986
amendments: proposed by the House of the Nation; approval requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the House membership, assented to by the president of the republic, and approved in a referendum by a majority of voters; amended many times, last in 2014 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently indirectly elected by the National Parliament and sworn in 24 April 2013
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 6 January 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 April 2013 (next to be held by 2018); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament
election results: President Abdul HAMID (AL) elected by the National Parliament unopposed; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister as leader of the majority AL party
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority popular vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using the single transferable vote method; all members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 January 2014 (next to be held by January 2019); note - the 5 January 2014 poll was marred by widespread violence, boycotts, general strikes, and low voter turnout
election results: percent of vote by party - AL 79.1%, JP (Ershad) 11.3%, WP 2.1%, JSD 1.8%, other 1%, independent 4.8%; seats by party - AL 234, JP 34, WP 6, JSD 5, other 5, independent 15; 1 seat repolled
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67
subordinate courts: subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court; special courts/tribunals
Political parties and leaders:
Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [Abdul Kalam AZADI]
Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]
Bangladesh Tariqat Federation or BTF [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI]
Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]
Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
National Socialist Party or JSD [KHALEQUZZAMAN]
Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Ain o Salish Kendro (Centre for Law and Mediation) or ASK (legal aid and civil rights)
Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity or BCWS
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee or BRAC [Sir Fasel Hasan ABED]
Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry or FBCCI [Md. Shafiul Islam (Mohiuddin)]
Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs or MoWCA [Meher Afroze CHUMKI] (advocacy group to end gender-based violence)
Odikhar [Dr. C.R. ABRAR (human rights group)
other: associations of madrassa teachers; business associations, including those intended to promote international trade; development and advocacy NGOs associated with the Grameen Bank; environmentalists; Islamist groups; labor rights advocacy groups; NGOs focused on poverty alleviation, and international trade; religious leaders; tribal groups and advocacy organizations; union leaders
International organization participation:
ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohammad ZIAUDDIN (since 18 September 2014)
chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
FAX: [1] (202) 244-2771
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marcia BERNICAT (since 4 February 2015)
embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone: [880] (2) 5566-2000
FAX: [880] (2) 5566-2915
Flag description:
green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
National symbol(s):
Bengal tiger, water lily; national colors: green, red
National anthem:
name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem

Economy

Economy - overview:
Bangladesh's economy has grown roughly 6% per year since 1996 despite prolonged periods of political instability, poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the services sector, almost half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product.
Garment exports, the backbone of Bangladesh's industrial sector, accounted for more than 80% of total exports and surpassed $25 billion in 2016. The sector continues to grow, despite a series of high-profile factory accidents that have killed more than 1,000 workers and crippling strikes, including a nationwide transportation blockade orchestrated by the political opposition during the first several months of 2015. Steady export growth in the garment sector combined with remittances from overseas Bangladeshis - which totaled about $15 billion and 8% of GDP in 2015 - are key contributors to Bangladesh's sustained economic growth and rising foreign exchange reserves.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$629.7 billion (2016 est.)
$580.1 billion (2015 est.)
$537.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 35
GDP (official exchange rate):
$228.4 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.2% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
6.3% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,900 (2016 est.)
$3,700 (2015 est.)
$3,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 178
Gross national saving:
30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 69.1%
government consumption: 5.9%
investment in fixed capital: 29.7%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 16.7%
imports of goods and services: -21.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 14.8%
industry: 28.8%
services: 56.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Industries:
jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas
Industrial production growth rate:
11.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Labor force:
72.05 million
note: extensive migration of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 47%
industry: 13%
services: 40% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.1% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many persons counted as employed work only a few hours a week and at low wages
country comparison to the world: 53
Population below poverty line:
31.5% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.1 (2010)
33.6 (1996)
country comparison to the world: 113
Budget:
revenues: $22.61 billion
expenditures: $33.72 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
9.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Public debt:
26.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.7% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Central bank discount rate:
5% (30 October 2016)
5% (30 October 2015)
country comparison to the world: 80
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.41% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.71% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Stock of narrow money:
$25.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.44 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Stock of broad money:
$121.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$106.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Stock of domestic credit:
$133.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$115.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$50.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.73 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$23.55 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
Current account balance:
$1.381 billion (2016 est.)
$2.58 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Exports:
$34.14 billion (2016 est.)
$31.74 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
Exports - commodities:
garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather
Exports - partners:
US 13.1%, Germany 12.7%, UK 8.6%, France 5.1%, Spain 5% (2016)
Imports:
$40.37 billion (2016 est.)
$37.86 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Imports - commodities:
cotton, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
China 24.3%, India 13.4%, Singapore 5.1%, Japan 4.5% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$32.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$27.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Debt - external:
$41.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$13.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$228.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$188 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Exchange rates:
taka (BDT) per US dollar -
78.468 (2016 est.)
78.468 (2015 est.)
77.947 (2014 est.)
77.614 (2013 est.)
81.86 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 60,300,000
electrification - total population: 60%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 49% (2013)
Electricity - production:
55.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Electricity - consumption:
48.98 billion kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
11.7 million kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
96.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
1.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Crude oil - production:
4,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Crude oil - exports:
313 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Crude oil - imports:
26,160 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Crude oil - proved reserves:
28 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 84
Refined petroleum products - production:
25,720 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
107,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Refined petroleum products - exports:
1,802 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Refined petroleum products - imports:
85,990 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Natural gas - production:
26.86 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Natural gas - consumption:
39.88 billion cu m (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Natural gas - proved reserves:
205.4 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
country comparison to the world: 45
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
66 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 772,369
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 126,391,269
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 80 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) operates 1 terrestrial TV station, 3 radio networks, and about 10 local stations; 8 private satellite TV stations and 3 private radio stations also broadcasting; foreign satellite TV stations are gaining audience share in the large cities; several international radio broadcasters are available (2009)
Internet country code:
.bd
Internet users:
total: 28,499,324
percent of population: 18.2% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 6
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,906,799
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 182,692,553 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
S2 (2016)
Airports:
18 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 139
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports:
3 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 2,950 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 2,460 km
broad gauge: 659 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 66
Roadways:
total: 21,269 km
paved: 2,021 km
unpaved: 19,248 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 106
Waterways:
8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 16
Merchant marine:
total: 62
by type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 28, chemical tanker 1, container 5, petroleum tanker 3
foreign-owned: 8 (China 1, Singapore 7)
registered in other countries: 10 (Comoros 1, Hong Kong 1, Panama 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 1) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 65
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Chittagong
river port(s): Mongla Port (Sela River)
container port(s): Chittagong (1,392,104) (2011)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.44% of GDP (2016)
1.46% of GDP (2015)
1.36% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.41% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 86
Military branches:
Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army (Sena Bahini), Bangladesh Navy (Noh Bahini, BN), Bangladesh Air Force (Biman Bahini, BAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
16-19 years of age for voluntary military service; Bangladeshi birth and 10th grade education required; initial obligation 15 years (2012)
Maritime threats:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Bangladesh remain a risk for armed robbery against ships; in 2016, the number of attacks against commercial vessels decreased to three over 11 such incidents in 2015

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Indian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 32,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 891,200 (Burma) (2017) (includes an estimated 615,000 Rohingya refugees who have fled conflict since 25 August 2017)
IDPs: 426,000 (conflict, development, human rights violations, religious persecution, natural disasters) (2016)
Illicit drugs:
transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries

Economic Indicators for Bangladesh including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Bangladesh economy.