Rwanda - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Rwanda is a rural, agrarian country with agriculture accounting for about 63% of export earnings, and with some mineral and agro-processing. Population density is high but, with the exception of the capital Kigali, is not concentrated in large cities – its 12 million people are spread out on a small amount of land (smaller than the state of Maryland). Tourism, minerals, coffee, and tea are Rwanda's main sources of foreign exchange. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with demand, requiring food imports. Energy shortages, instability...

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GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Investment 2017 1,906,000,000,000 1,790,000,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 1,865,000,000,000 1,749,000,000,000 NCU Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2017 1,740,000,000,000 1,690,000,000,000 NCU Annual
Private Consumption 2016 5,083,000,000,000 4,743,000,000,000 RWF Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 6,618,000,000,000 5,956,000,000,000 RWF Annual
Investment 2016 1,691,000,000,000 1,541,000,000,000 RWF Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2016 152.46 143.92 Index 2005=100 Annual
Government Consumption 2016 1,005 874 Bil. RWF Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Aug 2018 147.17 146.55 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 4,184,786 4,093,986 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 1.3 1.23 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 6,116,422 5,949,395 # Annual
Wage & Salaries 2016 272,915,571,241 240,681,510,355 NCU Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2017 2,641,000,000,000 2,398,000,000,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2017 1,290,000,000,000 966,000,000,000 NCU Annual
Current Account Balance 2017 -628,049,719 -1,335,778,905 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2017 1,921,724,927 2,036,154,129 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 2017 1,050,209,164 726,539,624 USD Annual
Balance of Goods 2017 -871,515,762 -1,309,614,504 USD Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2016 2,194,000,000,000 2,089,000,000,000 RWF Annual
Exports of Goods and Services 2016 996,000,000,000 850,000,000,000 RWF Annual
Government Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Government Revenues 2016 1,370,740,055,922 1,165,044,694,242 NCU Annual
Government Budget Balance 2011 399,315,000,000 362,867,000,000 current LCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Sep 2018 4.69 4.9 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Money Market Rate Sep 2018 5.57 5.68 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Jun 2017 6 6.25 % - End of period Monthly
Business Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Capacity Utilization 2006 67 % Annual
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Net Migration 2017 -44,999 # Annual
Population 2017 12,208,407 11,917,508 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 31.1 31.79 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 5.97 6.13 # per Ths. pop. Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF did in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there, and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009. President Paul KAGAME won the presidential election in August 2017 after changing the constitution in 2016 to allow him to run for a third term.

Geography

Location:
Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, north of Burundi
Geographic coordinates:
2 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 26,338 sq km
land: 24,668 sq km
water: 1,670 sq km
country comparison to the world: 149
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total: 930 km
border countries (4): Burundi 315 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 221 km, Tanzania 222 km, Uganda 172 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain:
mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1,598 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Natural resources:
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Land use:
agricultural land: 74.5%
arable land 47%; permanent crops 10.1%; permanent pasture 17.4%
forest: 18%
other: 7.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
96 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
one of Africa's most densely populated countries; large concentrations tend to be in the central regions and along the shore of Lake Kivu in the west
Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga Mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
volcanism: Visoke (3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country's only historically active volcano
Environment - current issues:
deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural

People & Society

Population:
11,901,484
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Nationality:
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groups:
Hutu, Tutsi, Twa (Pygmy)
Languages:
Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, French (official) <.1, English (official) <.1, Swahili/Kiswahili (official, used in commercial centers) <.1, more than one language, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.3%
(2002 est.)
Religions:
Protestant 49.5% (includes Adventist 11.8% and other Protestant 37.7%), Roman Catholic 43.7%, Muslim 2%, other 0.9% (includes Jehovah's Witness), none 2.5%, unspecified 1.3% (2012 est.)
Demographic profile:
Rwanda’s fertility rate declined sharply during the last decade, as a result of the government’s commitment to family planning, the increased use of contraceptives, and a downward trend in ideal family size. Increases in educational attainment, particularly among girls, and exposure to social media also contributed to the reduction in the birth rate. The average number of births per woman decreased from a 5.6 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2016. Despite these significant strides in reducing fertility, Rwanda’s birth rate remains very high and will continue to for an extended period of time because of its large population entering reproductive age. Because Rwanda is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, its persistent high population growth and increasingly small agricultural landholdings will put additional strain on families’ ability to raise foodstuffs and access potable water. These conditions will also hinder the government’s efforts to reduce poverty and prevent environmental degradation.
The UNHCR recommended that effective 30 June 2013 countries invoke a cessation of refugee status for those Rwandans who fled their homeland between 1959 and 1998, including the 1994 genocide, on the grounds that the conditions that drove them to seek protection abroad no longer exist. The UNHCR’s decision is controversial because many Rwandan refugees still fear persecution if they return home, concerns that are supported by the number of Rwandans granted asylum since 1998 and by the number exempted from the cessation. Rwandan refugees can still seek an exemption or local integration, but host countries are anxious to send the refugees back to Rwanda and are likely to avoid options that enable them to stay. Conversely, Rwanda itself hosts almost 160,000 refugees as of 2017; virtually all of them fleeing conflict in neighboring Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.38% (male 2,485,386/female 2,439,101)
15-24 years: 19.34% (male 1,151,657/female 1,149,928)
25-54 years: 32.77% (male 1,845,501/female 2,054,410)
55-64 years: 4.09% (male 216,725/female 269,972)
65 years and over: 2.43% (male 113,822/female 174,982) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 77.3
youth dependency ratio: 72.4
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 20.1 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 19 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.8 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Population growth rate:
2.45% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Birth rate:
30.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Death rate:
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
Net migration rate:
0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Population distribution:
one of Africa's most densely populated countries; large concentrations tend to be in the central regions and along the shore of Lake Kivu in the west
Urbanization:
urban population: 30.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
KIGALI (capital) 1.257 million (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
23 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
290 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Infant mortality rate:
total: 29.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.3 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 66.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Total fertility rate:
3.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
53.2% (2014/15)
Health expenditures:
7.5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 65
Physicians density:
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 71.9% of population
total: 76.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 28.1% of population
total: 23.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 58.5% of population
rural: 62.9% of population
total: 61.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 41.5% of population
rural: 37.1% of population
total: 38.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
3.1% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
220,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
3,300 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
5.8% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 174
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
9.3% (2015)
country comparison to the world: 63
Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 73
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.5%
male: 73.2%
female: 68% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 4.4%
male: 3.6%
female: 5.2% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda
former: Ruanda, German East Africa
etymology: the name translates as "domain" in the native Kinyarwanda language
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Kigali
geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 03 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)
Independence:
1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 26 May 2003, effective 4 June 2003
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (with Council of Ministers approval) or by two-thirds majority support of both houses of Parliament; passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote in both houses; changes to constitutional articles on national sovereignty, the presidential term, the form and system of government, and political pluralism also require approval in a referendum; amended 2008, 2010, 2015 (2017)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of civil law, based on German and Belgian models, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Rwanda; if the father is stateless or unknown, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Edouard NGIRENTE (since 30 August 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); note - constitutional amendments approved in December 2016, included one that reduced the presidential term from 7 to 5 years but included an exception that allowed President KAGAME to serve another 7-year term in 2017, potentially followed by two additional 5-year terms; election last held on 4 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2024); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 98.8%, Philippe MPAYIMANA (independent) 0.7%, Frank HABINEZA (DGPR)0.5%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate or Senat (26 seats; 12 members indirectly elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the Political Organizations Forum - a body of registered political parties, and 2 selected by institutions of higher learning; members serve 8-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (80 seats; 53 members directly elected by proportional representation vote, 24 women selected by special interest groups, and 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - NA; Chamber of Deputies - last held on 16-18 September 2013 (next to be held on 3 September 2018)
election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition 76.2%, PSD 13%, PL 9.3%, other 1.5%; seats by party - Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition 41, PSD 7, PL 5, 27 indirectly elected members
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 15 judges; normally organized into 3-judge panels); High Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 24 judges and organized into 5 chambers
note: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president after consultation with the Cabinet and the Superior Council of the Judiciary or SCJ (a 27-member body of judges, other judicial officials, and legal professionals) and approved by the Senate; chief and deputy chief justices appointed for 8-year nonrenewable terms; tenure of judges NA; High Court president and vice president appointed by the president of the republic upon approval by the Senate; judges appointed by the Supreme Court chief justice upon approval of the SCJ; judge tenure NA
judge selection and term of office: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; and military specialized courts
subordinate courts: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; and military specialized courts
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party or PL [Donatille MUKABALISA]
Party for Progress and Concord or PPC [Dr. Alivera MUKABARAMBA]
Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]
Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition (includes RPF, PPC) [Paul KAGAME]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
Rwanda National Congress (opposition group in exile)
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mathilde MUKANTABANA (since 18 July 2013)
chancery: 1875 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 418, Washington, DC, 2000
telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter H. VROOMAN (since 5 April 2018)
embassy: 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie, Kigali
mailing address: B.P. 28, Kigali
telephone: [250] 252 596-400
FAX: [250] 252 580 325
Flag description:
three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band; blue represents happiness and peace, yellow economic development and mineral wealth, green hope of prosperity and natural resources; the sun symbolizes unity, as well as enlightenment and transparency from ignorance
National symbol(s):
traditional woven basket with peaked lid; national colors: blue, yellow, green
National anthem:
name: "Rwanda nziza" (Rwanda, Our Beautiful Country)
lyrics/music: Faustin MURIGO/Jean-Bosco HASHAKAIMANA
note: adopted 2001

Economy

Economy - overview:
Rwanda is a rural, agrarian country with agriculture accounting for about 63% of export earnings, and with some mineral and agro-processing. Population density is high but, with the exception of the capital Kigali, is not concentrated in large cities – its 12 million people are spread out on a small amount of land (smaller than the state of Maryland). Tourism, minerals, coffee, and tea are Rwanda's main sources of foreign exchange. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with demand, requiring food imports. Energy shortages, instability in neighboring states, and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap private sector growth.
The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and temporarily stalled the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy well beyond pre-1994 levels. GDP has rebounded with an average annual growth of 6%-8% since 2003 and inflation has been reduced to single digits. In 2015, 39% of the population lived below the poverty line, according to government statistics, compared to 57% in 2006.
The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education, infrastructure, and foreign and domestic investment. Rwanda consistently ranks well for ease of doing business and transparency.
The Rwandan Government is seeking to become a regional leader in information and communication technologies and aims to reach middle-income status by 2020 by leveraging the service industry. In 2012, Rwanda completed the first modern Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Kigali. The SEZ seeks to attract investment in all sectors, but specifically in agribusiness, information and communications, trade and logistics, mining, and construction. In 2016, the government launched an online system to give investors information about public land and its suitability for agricultural development.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$24.61 billion (2017 est.)
$23.18 billion (2016 est.)
$21.89 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 143
GDP (official exchange rate):
$8.918 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.2% (2017 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,100 (2017 est.)
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$1,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 204
Gross national saving:
10.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
7.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 78%
government consumption: 14.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26.5%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 15.4%
imports of goods and services: -35.3% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 30.9%
industry: 17.6%
services: 51.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Industries:
cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate:
4.8% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Labor force:
6.227 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 75.3%
industry: 6.7%
services: 18% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.7% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Population below poverty line:
39.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 43.2% (2011 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
46.8 (2013 est.)
28.9 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Budget:
revenues: $1.874 billion
expenditures: $2.255 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
21% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Public debt:
47.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.1% (2017 est.)
5.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Central bank discount rate:
7.75% (31 December 2010 est.)
11.25% (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
16.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
17.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Stock of narrow money:
$941 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$940.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Stock of broad money:
$1.937 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.903 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.054 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.959 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA
Current account balance:
$-905 million (2017 est.)
$-1.211 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
Exports:
$908.9 million (2017 est.)
$745 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Exports - commodities:
coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners:
Democratic Republic of the Congo 31.3%, Kenya 15.7%, UAE 13.8%, Switzerland 8.7%, Burundi 5.7% (2016)
Imports:
$2.007 billion (2017 est.)
$2.045 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners:
China 21.2%, Uganda 11.2%, Kenya 7.8%, India 7.4%, UAE 5.8%, Tanzania 5.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.026 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.104 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Debt - external:
$2.966 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.611 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$2.473 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.072 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$26.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$26.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Exchange rates:
Rwandan francs (RWF) per US dollar -
839.1 (2017 est.)
787.25 (2016 est.)
787.25 (2015 est.)
720.54 (2014 est.)
680.95 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
population without electricity: 9,300,000
electrification - total population: 21%
electrification - urban areas: 67%
electrification - rural areas: 5% (2013)
Electricity - production:
600 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Electricity - consumption:
644 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Electricity - exports:
4 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Electricity - imports:
90 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
152,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
27.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
65.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
6.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
6,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
Refined petroleum products - imports:
5,979 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Natural gas - proved reserves:
56.63 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 13,403
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 8,921,533
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Telephone system:
general assessment: small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business, education, and government
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to provincial centers by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased and now exceeds 65 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service) (2015)
Broadcast media:
1 government-run TV station and 5 independent stations; 6 government-owned and 27 independent radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2016)
Internet country code:
.rw
Internet users:
total: 2,597,685
percent of population: 20.0% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 9
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 645,815
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 21,382,897 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
9XR (2016)
Airports:
7 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 167
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways:
total: 4,700 km
paved: 1,207 km
unpaved: 3,493 km (2012)
country comparison to the world: 152
Waterways:
(Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft) (2011)
Ports and terminals:
lake port(s): Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye (Lake Kivu)

Military & Security

Military expenditures:
1.21% of GDP (2016)
1.25% of GDP (2015)
1.13% of GDP (2014)
1.08% of GDP (2013)
1.09% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 95
Military branches:
Rwanda Defense Force (RDF): Rwanda Army (Rwanda Land Force), Rwanda Air Force (Force Aerienne Rwandaise, FAR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Rwandan citizenship is required, as is a 9th-grade education for enlisted recruits and an A-level certificate for officer candidates; enlistment is either as contract (5-years, renewable twice) or career; retirement (for officers and senior NCOs) after 20 years of service or at 40-60 years of age (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 91,178 (Burundi); 74,276 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2018)

Economic Indicators for Rwanda including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Rwanda economy.