Maldives - Economic Indicators

Economic Overview

Maldives has quickly become a middle-income country, driven by the rapid growth of its tourism and fisheries sectors, but the country still contends with a large and growing fiscal deficit. Economic growth slowed to 2.8% in 2015, mainly because of a decline in tourists from China and Russia. Despite lower growth, tourism-related tax receipts increased by 13% in 2015 because of higher tax rates. This increase in tax receipts led to higher usable foreign exchange reserves that helped partially fund increases in construction related imports. In 2015, Maldives’ Parliament...

Continue reading View Factbook for Maldives

GDP Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Private Consumption 2016 36,309,336,124 30,677,955,819 MVR Annual
Nominal Gross Domestic Product 2016 65,310,440,291 61,868,727,990 MVR Annual
Real Gross Domestic Product 2015 127.18 123.66 Index 2005=100 Annual
Nominal Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2005 5,133,900,000 3,479,454,000 NCU Annual
Investment 2005 5,133,900,000 3,479,454,000 NCU Annual
Real Investment 2004 3,612,400,000 3,252,600,000 NCU Annual
Real Fixed Investment (gross fixed capital formation) 2004 3,612,400,000 3,252,600,000 NCU Annual
Price Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Mar 2018 135.66 135.82 2010=100, NSA Monthly
Labor Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Agriculture Employment 2017 16,463 16,353 # Annual
Unemployment Rate 2017 4.99 5.03 % of total labor force Annual
Labor Force 2016 208,781 207,420 # Annual
Trade Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Exports of Goods and Services 2017 51,434,816,515 48,367,409,146 NCU Annual
Imports of Goods and Services 2017 54,822,133,220 49,145,968,797 NCU Annual
Current Account Balance 2017 -876,423,808 -1,032,401,054 USD Annual
Imports of Goods 2017 2,222,920,544 2,094,859,591 USD Annual
Balance of Goods 2017 -1,904,581,277 -1,838,664,500 USD Annual
Exports of Goods 2017 318,339,267 256,195,090 USD Annual
Real Imports of Goods and Services 2004 7,987,100,000 6,378,900,000 NCU Annual
Real Exports of Goods and Services 2004 9,269,400,000 8,284,300,000 NCU Annual
Markets Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Treasury Bills (over 31 days) Jun 2018 3.5 3.5 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Lending Rate Mar 2013 16 16 % - End of period Monthly
Money Market Rate Dec 2000 6.8 6.8 % p.a., NSA Monthly
Demographics Reference Last Previous Units Frequency
Population 2017 436,330 427,756 # Annual
Birth Rate 2016 18.27 18.81 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Death Rate 2016 3.34 3.38 # per Ths. pop. Annual
Net Migration 2012 21,916 # Annual

Factbook

Background

Background:
A sultanate since the 12th century, the Maldives became a British protectorate in 1887. The islands became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM dominated Maldives' political scene for 30 years, elected to six successive terms by single-party referendums. Following political demonstrations in the capital Male in August 2003, GAYOOM and his government pledged to embark upon a process of liberalization and democratic reforms, including a more representative political system and expanded political freedoms. Political parties were legalized in 2005.
In June 2008, a constituent assembly - termed the "Special Majlis" - finalized a new constitution ratified by GAYOOM in August 2008. The first-ever presidential elections under a multi-candidate, multi-party system were held in October 2008. GAYOOM was defeated in a runoff poll by Mohamed NASHEED, a political activist who had been jailed several years earlier by the GAYOOM regime. NASHEED faced a number of challenges including strengthening democracy and combating poverty and drug abuse. In early February 2012, after several weeks of street protests in response to his ordering the arrest of a top judge, NASHEED resigned the presidency and handed over power to Vice President Mohammed WAHEED Hassan Maniku. In mid-2012, a Commission of National Inquiry was established by the government to probe events leading up to NASHEED's resignation. Though the commission found no evidence of a coup, the report recommended strengthening the country's democratic institutions to avert similar events in the future, and to investigate alleged police misconduct during the crisis. NASHEED, WAHEED, and Abdulla YAMEEN ran in the 2013 elections with YAMEEN ultimately winning the presidency after three rounds of voting. As president, YAMEEN has sought to weaken democratic institutions, jail his political opponents, restrict the press, and exert control over the judiciary to strengthen his hold on power and limit dissent. Maldivian officials have played a prominent role in international climate change discussions (due to the islands' vulnerability to rising sea-level).

Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India
Geographic coordinates:
3 15 N, 73 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 298 sq km
land: 298 sq km
water: 0 sq km
country comparison to the world: 210
Area - comparative:
about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
644 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)
Terrain:
flat, with white sandy beaches
Elevation:
mean elevation: 1.8 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: 8th tee, golf course, Villingi Island 5 m
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
agricultural land: 23.3%
arable land 10%; permanent crops 10%; permanent pasture 3.3%
forest: 3%
other: 73.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
about a third of the population lives in the centrally located capital city of Male and almost a tenth in southern Addu City; the remainder of the populace is spread over the 200 or so populated islands of the archipelago
Natural hazards:
tsunamis; low elevation of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise
Environment - current issues:
depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; coral reef bleaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
smallest Asian country; archipelago of 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

People & Society

Population:
392,709 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Nationality:
noun: Maldivian(s)
adjective: Maldivian
Ethnic groups:
South Indians, Sinhalese, Arabs
Languages:
Dhivehi (official, dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English (spoken by most government officials)
Religions:
Sunni Muslim (official)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 21.4% (male 42,871/female 41,162)
15-24 years: 20.21% (male 45,547/female 33,804)
25-54 years: 48.1% (male 106,701/female 82,187)
55-64 years: 5.85% (male 11,312/female 11,667)
65 years and over: 4.45% (male 8,042/female 9,416) (2017 est.)
population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 38
youth dependency ratio: 32.3
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
potential support ratio: 17.7 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 28.2 years
male: 28.1 years
female: 28.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
Population growth rate:
-0.06% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
Birth rate:
16.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
Death rate:
4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
Net migration rate:
-12.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
Population distribution:
about a third of the population lives in the centrally located capital city of Male and almost a tenth in southern Addu City; the remainder of the populace is spread over the 200 or so populated islands of the archipelago
Urbanization:
urban population: 47.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.52% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
MALE (capital) 156,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.37 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.34 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.23 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
23.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009 est.)
Maternal mortality ratio:
68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
Infant mortality rate:
total: 22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.8 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 78.3 years (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
34.7% (2009)
Health expenditures:
13.7% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 4
Physicians density:
3.61 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
4.3 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.5% of population
rural: 97.9% of population
total: 98.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.5% of population
rural: 2.1% of population
total: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 97.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
8.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 148
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
17.8% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 36
Education expenditures:
4.3% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 26
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.8%
female: 98.8% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 25.4%
male: 29.1%
female: 21.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Maldives
conventional short form: Maldives
local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
local short form: Dhivehi Raajje
etymology: archipelago apparently named after the main island (and capital) of Male; the word "Maldives" means "the islands (dives) of Male"; alternatively, the name may derive from the Sanskrit word "maladvipa" meaning "garland of islands"; Dhivehi Raajje in Maldivian means "Kingdom of the Dhivehi people"
Government type:
presidential republic
Capital:
name: Male
geographic coordinates: 4 10 N, 73 30 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
21 administrative atolls (atholhuthah, singular - atholhu); Addu, Ariatholhu Dhekunuburi, Ariatholhu Uthuruburi, Faadhippolhu, Felidhuatholhu, Fuvammulah, Hahdhunmathi, Huvadhuatholhu Dhekunuburi, Huvadhuatholhu Uthuruburi, Kolhumadulu, Maale, Maaleatholhu, Maalhosmadulu Dhekunuburi, Maalhosmadulu Uthuruburi, Miladhunmadulu Dhekunuburi, Miladhunmadulu Uthuruburi, Mulakatholhu, Nilandheatholhu Dhekunuburi, Nilandheatholhu Uthuruburi, Thiladhunmathee Dhekunuburi, Thiladhunmathee Uthuruburi
Independence:
26 July 1965 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 July (1965)
Constitution:
history: many previous; latest ratified 7 August 2008
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote by its membership and the signature of the president of the republic; passage of amendments to constitutional articles on rights and freedoms and the terms of office of Parliament and of the president also requires a majority vote in a referendum; amended 2015 (2017)
Legal system:
Islamic religious legal system with English common law influences, primarily in commercial matters
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Maldives
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom (since 17 November 2013); Vice President Abdulla JIHAD (since 21 June 2016); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - Vice President Mohamed JAMEEL was removed from office 22 July 2015 and Vice President Ahmed ADEEB Abdul Ghafoor was removed from office 5 November 2015
head of government: President Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom (since 17 November 2013); Vice President Abdulla JIHAD (since 21 June 2016); note - Vice President Mohamed JAMEEL was removed from office 22 July 2015 and Vice President Ahmed ADHEEB Abdul Ghafoor was removed from office 5 November 2015
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); the election held on 7 September 2013 was annulled by the Supreme Court; rerun of first round held on 9 November 2013 and a runoff held on 16 November 2013 (next election to be held in 2018)
election results: Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Mohamed NASHEED (MDP) 46.9%, Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom (PPM) 29.7%, Qasim IBRAHIM (JP) 23.3%; percent of vote in second round - Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom 51.4%, Mohamed NASHEED 48.6%
Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Parliament or People's Majlis (85 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 March 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote - MDP 40.8%, PPM 27.7%, JP 13.6%, MDA 4.0%, AP 2.7% other 0.3%, independent 10.9%; seats by party - PPM 33, MDP 26, JP 15, MDA 5, AP 1, independent 5
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission - a separate 10-member body of selected high government officials and the public - and upon confirmation by voting members of the People's Majlis; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Criminal, Civil, Family, Juvenile, and Drug Courts; Magistrate Courts (on each of the inhabited islands)
Political parties and leaders:
Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Sheikh Imran ABDULLA]
Maldives Development Alliance or MDA [Ahmed Shiyam MOHAMED]
Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Hassan LATHEEF]
Progressive Party of Maldives or PPM [Abdulla YAMEEN]
Republican (Jumhooree) Party or JP [Qasim IBRAHIM]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: various unregistered political parties
International organization participation:
ADB, AOSIS, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ali NASEER Mohamed (since 21 July 2017)
chancery: 801 Second Avenue, Suite 400E, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6194 and 599-6195
FAX: [1] (212) 661-6405
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Maldives; the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives
Flag description:
red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent moon; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag; red recalls those who have sacrificed their lives in defense of their country, the green rectangle represents peace and prosperity, and the white crescent signifies Islam
National symbol(s):
coconut palm, yellowfin tuna; national colors: red, green, white
National anthem:
name: "Gaumee Salaam" (National Salute)
lyrics/music: Mohamed Jameel DIDI/Wannakuwattawaduge DON AMARADEVA
note: lyrics adopted 1948, music adopted 1972; between 1948 and 1972, the lyrics were sung to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne"

Economy

Economy - overview:
Maldives has quickly become a middle-income country, driven by the rapid growth of its tourism and fisheries sectors, but the country still contends with a large and growing fiscal deficit. Economic growth slowed to 2.8% in 2015, mainly because of a decline in tourists from China and Russia. Despite lower growth, tourism-related tax receipts increased by 13% in 2015 because of higher tax rates. This increase in tax receipts led to higher usable foreign exchange reserves that helped partially fund increases in construction related imports.
In 2015, Maldives’ Parliament passed a constitutional amendment legalizing foreign ownership of land; foreign land-buyers must reclaim at least 70% of the desired land from the ocean and invest at least $1 billion in a construction project approved by Parliament.
Diversifying the economy beyond tourism and fishing, reforming public finance, increasing employment opportunities, and combating corruption, cronyism, and a growing drug problem are near-term challenges facing the government. Over the longer term, Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is 1 meter or less above sea level.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$6.896 billion (2017 est.)
$6.596 billion (2016 est.)
$6.348 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 170
GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.52 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.6% (2017 est.)
3.9% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$19,200 (2017 est.)
$18,600 (2016 est.)
$18,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 93
Gross national saving:
2.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: NA%
government consumption: NA%
investment in fixed capital: NA%
investment in inventories: NA%
exports of goods and services: 108.2%
imports of goods and services: 89.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 16%
services: 81% (2015 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fish
Industries:
tourism, fish processing, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining
Industrial production growth rate:
14% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Labor force:
195,100 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 15%
services: 70% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate:
11.6% (2017 est.)
11% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Population below poverty line:
16% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 33.3% (FY09/10 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
38.4 (2009 est.)
37.4 (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Budget:
revenues: $1.481 billion
expenditures: $1.7 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
32.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Public debt:
81.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
72% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (2017 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Central bank discount rate:
7% (30 September 2017 est.)
6.96% (30 September 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
10.2% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Stock of narrow money:
$338.5 million (31 October 2017 est.)
$623 million (31 October 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Stock of broad money:
$1.337 billion (31 October 2017 est.)
$1.298 billion (31 October 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.559 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.601 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$555 million (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Current account balance:
$-779 million (2017 est.)
$-831 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Exports:
$239.7 million (2016 est.)
$300.9 million (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Exports - commodities:
fish
Exports - partners:
Thailand 33.8%, Sri Lanka 10%, US 8.7%, France 8.6%, Germany 8.6%, Ireland 4.9%, Italy 4.8%, UK 4.1% (2016)
Imports:
$1.896 billion (2016 est.)
$1.993 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Imports - commodities:
petroleum products, clothing, intermediate and capital goods
Imports - partners:
UAE 15.6%, Singapore 14.3%, China 13.4%, India 12.9%, Sri Lanka 6.3%, Malaysia 5.7%, Thailand 4.7% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$565.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$627.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Debt - external:
$693.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$741.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$324 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$256 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$448 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$307.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Exchange rates:
rufiyaa (MVR) per US dollar -
15.42 (2017 est.)
15.35 (2016 est.)

Energy

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
350 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Electricity - consumption:
325.5 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
104,000 kW (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
96.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
3.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
11,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Refined petroleum products - imports:
10,760 bbl/day (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 21,136
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 812,128
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 207 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Telephone system:
general assessment: telephone services have improved; inter-atoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands and resorts are connected with telephone and fax service
domestic: each island now has at least 1 public telephone, and there are mobile-cellular networks with a rapidly expanding subscribership that has reached over 200 per 100 persons
international: country code - 960; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
Broadcast media:
state-owned radio and TV monopoly until recently; state-owned TV operates 2 channels; 3 privately owned TV stations; state owns Voice of Maldives and operates both an entertainment and a music-based station; 5 privately owned radio stations (2012)
Internet country code:
.mv
Internet users:
total: 232,210
percent of population: 59.1% (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168

Transportation

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 15 (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
8Q (2016)
Airports:
9 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 159
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Roadways:
total: 88 km
paved roads: 88 km - 60 km in Male; 14 km on Addu Atolis; 14 km on Laamu
note: island roads are mainly compacted coral (2013)
country comparison to the world: 216
Merchant marine:
total: 66
by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 1, general cargo 27, oil tanker 14, other 23 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 104
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Male

Military & Security

Military branches:
Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF): Marine Corps, Security Protection Group, Coast Guard (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
18-28 years of age for voluntary service; no conscription; 10th grade or equivalent education required; must not be a member of a political party (2012)
Military - note:
Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF), with its small size and with little serviceable equipment, is inadequate to prevent external aggression and is primarily tasked to reinforce Maldives Police Service (MPS) and ensure security in the exclusive economic zone (2008)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
none
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Maldives is a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and a source country for women and children subjected to labor and sex trafficking; primarily Bangladeshi and Indian migrants working both legally and illegally in the construction and service sectors face conditions of forced labor, including fraudulent recruitment, confiscation of identity and travel documents, nonpayment and withholding of wages, and debt bondage; a small number of women from Asia, Eastern Europe, and former Soviet states are trafficked to Maldives for sexual exploitation; Maldivian women may be subjected to sex trafficking domestically or in Sri Lanka; some Maldivian children are transported to the capital for domestic service, where they may also be victims of sexual abuse and forced labor
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Maldives does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government adopted a national action plan for 2015-19 and is continuing to develop victim identification, protection, and referral procedures, but overall its anti-trafficking efforts did not increase; only five trafficking investigations were conducted, no new prosecutions were initiated for the second consecutive year, and no convictions were made, down from one in 2013; some officials warned businesses in advance of planned raids for suspected trafficking offenses; victim protection deteriorated when the state-run shelter for female victims barred access to victims shortly after opening in January 2014, in part because of bureaucratic disputes, which dissuaded victims from pursuing charges against perpetrators; the government did not prosecute or hold accountable any employers or government officials for withholding passports (2015)

Economic Indicators for Maldives including actual values, historical data, and latest data updates for the Maldives economy.